This site serves as a way to make announcements and report on the latest news I have to share (as often as I can...).

This section is also used to provide more detailed information on statements and news I share on my Twitter account. Twitter, however, may be updated more frequently. For announcements regarding collaboration, positions, supervision for students, etc., please consult the collaboration section.


Dead or Alive? No worries, just busy

Friday, 15. July 2022


A friend reminded me that the website needs some updates, and yes he is absolutely right. No worries I have not been lazy during the last few months. In fact, a couple of articles were published. I did not prepare infographics because even more manuscripts are in production, so I did not find the time to commit to visual dissemination works. Maybe in the future, I will create and post some. For now, I just present and link the two most important new publications with me as the first author. The full publication list is usually always updated.



TitleCritical assessment of a wide-spread method to estimate energy expenditure during accelerated running based on positioning tracking systems





This is a commentary about problems in current research on a popular method to estimate energy costs based on position data. It is brief and but important for the field. I am proud that the well-recognized Journal of Sport and Health Science (rank 3 world-wide in sport science) published this contribution.



TitleSensor number in simplified insole layouts and the accuracy of ground reaction force measurement during locomotion





Research attempted to validate simplified insoles with a reduced number of sensors to facilitate clinical application. However, the ideal sensor number is yet to be determined. The purpose was to investigate the validity of vertical ground reaction forces in various simplified pressure sensor insoles and to identify an optimal compromise between sensor number and measurement performance. A Kistler force plate (1000 Hz) and 99-sensor Pedar-X insole (100 Hz) obtained force data of 15 participants during walking and jogging. Eight simplified insole layouts (3–17 sensors) were simulated. Layout performances were expressed as Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r) with force plate as reference and coefficient of variation. Differences were assessed via repeated-measures ANOVA as partial eta square (ηp2) at p < .05. All layouts correlated with the force plate (r = .70–.99, p < .01). All layout performances were higher in jogging than in walking by r = +.07 ± .04 (ηp2=.28–.66, p < .05). The three- and five-sensor layouts yielded the lowest correlation (r = .70-.88) and the highest coefficient of variation (11–22%). Layout performances improved constantly from 7 to 11 sensors. The optimal compromise between simplification and measurement performance, quantified via change in correlation per sensor number, was found in the 11-sensor layout, recommendable for practical settings to improve monitoring and adjusting protocols.

Published: Scientific paper on improved prediction of spike jump performance based on general jumps

Thursday, 28. January 2021


I just started the year publishing a new article in the open-access journal Applied Sciences.




TitleRelationship between General Jump Types and Spike Jump Performance in Elite Female and Male Volleyball Players



In performance testing, it is well-established that general jump types like squat and countermovement jumps have great reliability, but the relationship with volleyball spike jumps is unclear. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between general and spike jumps and to provide improved models for predicting spike jump height by general jump performance. Thirty female and male elite volleyball players performed general and spike jumps in a randomized order. Two AMTI force plates (2000 Hz) and 13 Vicon MX cameras (250 Hz) captured kinematic and kinetic data. Correlation and stepwise-forward regression analyses were conducted at p < 0.05. Simple regression models with general jump height as the only predictor for spike jumps revealed 0.52 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.76 for all general jumps in both sexes (p < 0.05). Alternative models including rate of force development and impulse improved predictions during squat jumps from R2 = 0.76 to R2 = 0.92 (p < 0.05) in females and from R2 = 0.61 to R2 = 0.71 (p < 0.05) in males, and during countermovement jumps with arm swing from R2 = 0.52 to R2 = 0.78 (p < 0.01) in males. The findings include improved prediction models for spike jump height based on general jump performance. The derived formulas can be applied in general jump testing to improve the assessment of sport-specific spike jump performance.

Two more scientific papers published

Friday, 28. August 2020


Both investigations were intervention studies, conducted with the female volleyball team of PSV Salzburg. The effect on spike jump height was published as print version this month in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. Just three days ago, the effects on balance performance were published online in the open access journal Applied Sciences.


Article 1Effect of Differential Training on Female Volleyball Spike-Jump Technique and Performance

Journal: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (Impact factor: 3.5)



Article 2: Effects of Differential Jump Training on Balance Performance in Female Volleyball Players

Journal: Applied Sciences (Impact factor: 2.5)


New YouTube video: PhD final presentation (28 Jan 2020)

Wednesday, 31. March 2020


I uploaded my final presentation for the PhD in Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Salzburg. Subtitles are added because sound quality is.. so so, due to the available settings during recording.


Link to the video:

YouTube channel: Science, Sports, & more

Published: Scientific paper on sex differences in volleyball spike jump biomechanics

Sunday, 24. November 2019


A new paper of mine, part of the Ph.D. in Salzburg, was published online a while ago already and is also available as print version in the Journal of Sports Science.




Title: Spike jump biomechanics in male versus female elite volleyball players



There are well-known biological differences between women and men, especially in technical-coordinative variations that contribute to sex differences in performance of complex movements like the most important offensive action in volleyball, the spike jump. The aim of this study was to investigate sex-dependent performance and biomechanical characteristics in the volleyball spike jump. Thirty female and male sub-elite volleyball players were analysed while striking a stationary ball with maximal spike jump height. Twelve MX13 Vicon cameras with a cluster marker set, two AMTI force plates, surface EMG, and a Full-Body 3D model in Visual3D were used. Main findings include sex differences (P < .05) in jump height (pη2 = .73), approach [speed (pη2 = .61), step length], transition strategy [plant angle, neuromuscular activation (pη2 = .91), horizontal force maxima and impulses], acceleration distances [centre of mass displacement (pη2 = .21), minimal knee and hip angles], use of torso and arms [incline, angular velocity (pη2 = .23)]. Correlations support that the results cannot be explained fully by strength and power differences between sexes but represent the product of technical-coordinative variations. Their relevance is acknowledged for both sexes and numerous performance determinants displayed sex differences. The integration of such attributes into sex-specific training seems promising but its effect requires further investigation.

Published: Scientific paper on performance factors in female volleyball spike jumps

Wednesday, 09. January 2019


A new paper of mine, part of the Ph.D. in Salzburg, is published now in the highly ranked Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.




Title: Movement characteristics of volleyball spike jump performance in females



Performance factors in the volleyball spike jump are well known for male players; however, technical-coordinative differences for female players are known only marginally. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between movement characteristics and female’ spike jump performance and to identify the most relevant aspects of jump height and ball velocity.

Fifteen elite female volleyball players performed spike jumps by striking a stationary ball at maximal jump height. Data were collected via twelve MX13 Vicon cameras (250 Hz), two AMTI force plates (2000 Hz), and controlled via Visual3D software.

Ten out of 42 characteristics correlated with jump height and none of 22 correlated with ball velocity. A stepwise regression model (adjusted R2 = 0.82, p < 0.001) predicted jump height based on orientation step length and maximal angular velocity of dominant knee extension. For ball velocity, stepwise regression analysis was not feasible; however, an alternative model yielded adjusted R2 = 0.55, p < 0.01.

Key aspects for jump height were (1) optimised approach and energy conversion, (2) wide dynamic arm swing allowing for a forceful countermovement and, thus, increased range of motion in lower limbs, and (3) large angular velocities in ankles and knees, especially on the dominant side. These aspects strongly determined jump height in females and should be included in technical and strength-related training. For ball velocity, upper body anthropometrics and angular joint velocities emerged as the most important criteria. The importance of specific joints may depend on variations in striking technique.

New: YouTube channel + presentation uploads

Friday, 23. November 2018


I thought it would be nice to have not only pdf-slides of presentations and an abstract somewhere stored in ResearchGate but to provide the original presentation itself as video uploaded on YouTube. I had the idea due to missing the chance to attend a conference recently and doing a distance presentation.

Therefore, I had the original record anyway.


The channel will be used in the future to upload further presentation when there are some. This implies that it is not frequently used but every future presentation shall be available there. Hopefully, the original presentations are more informative and entertaining than simple pdf-slides with no audio.


To begin with, here is the recent presentation on: Philosophy in Oriental Martial Arts and its Practical Relevance for Fight Application


And here the YouTube channel itself: Science, Sports, & more

Published: Scientific paper on computerized Wobble Board

Tuesday, 06. March 2018


A new paper of colleagues from Cassino and me is published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.



Free download:


Title: Dynamic Balance Evaluation: Reliability and Validity of a Computerized Wobble Board


Abstract: Computerized Wobble Boards (WB) are inexpensive, transportable and user-friendly devices to objectively quantify the dynamic balance performances out of laboratory settings, although it has not been established if they are reliable and valid tools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a computerized WB. Thirty-nine (18 female, 21 male) young adults (age: 23.3±2.1years; body mass: 65.9±1.8kg; height: 168.2±8.8cm; leg length: 78.8±5.7cm; BMI: 23.2±2.1kg·m-2) participated in the study. Subjects were assessed during three separate sessions on different days with a 48h rest in between. A total number of two WB single limb tests and one Y Balance Test (YBT) were performed. The WB performance was registered using the proprietary software and represented by the time spent in the target zone, which represented the 0° tilt angle measured by the tri-axial accelerometer in the WB. YBT normalized reach distances were recorded for the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient, 95% confidence interval, standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate intrasession and intersession reliability, while Pearson product moment correlation was used to determine concurrent validity. Reliability ranged from fair to excellent, showing acceptable levels of error and low minimal detectable change. However, all correlation coefficients between WB and YBT outcomes were poor. Despite the two methods addressing different aspects of balance performance, WB seems to validly serve its purpose and showed good reliability. Therefore, computerized WBs have the potential to become essential devices for dynamic balance assessment.

Officially enroled for second Ph.D. in Italy

Tuesday, 30. January 2018


Starting a second Ph.D. in 'Methods, Models and Technologies' at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy. I do research there on performance testing and device assessment during balance tasks using a so-called Wobble Board. It does not affect the progress of my first Ph.D. in 'Sports Science and Kinesiology' at the University of Salzburg, Austria.

You can see parts of the agreement signed by both universities on Twitter.

Published: Scientific paper on martial arts punching

Saturday, 02. December 2017


A new paper of mine is published now in the scientific journal of Sports Biomechanics.



50 free copies:


Title: Kinematic analysis of proximal-to-distal and simultaneous motion sequencing

of straight punches


Abstract: Consecutive proximal-to-distal sequencing of motion is considered to be integral for generating high velocity of distal segments in many sports. Simultaneous usage of proximal and distal segments as seen in martial arts is by far less well investigated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterise and differentiate the concepts of consecutive (CSM) and simultaneous (SSM) sequence of motion in straight reverse punches as practised in Practical Wing Chun. Four experienced martial artists succeeded an eligibility test for technical proficiency in both concepts and performed a total number of 20 straight punches per concept. Eight MX13 Vicon cameras (250 fps) and Visual3D were used for motion capture and analyses. Both motion concepts showed proximal-to-distal sequencing of maximal joint velocities but, in SSM, this was coupled with simultaneous initiation. Key characteristics were: high pelvis momentum and backswing of shoulder and elbow (CSM); and importance of shoulder involvement (SSM). Different ranges of motion, timing aspects and achieved maximal angular velocities distinguished both concepts, which led to differences (p < 0.05) in fist velocity at contact, execution time, distance and horizontal shift of the centre of mass. Proper application of both concepts depends on the environmental setting, situational requirements and individual fighting style.

Sailing training camp, Sanremo, Italy

Wednesday, 29. November 2017


Just back from an one week training camp in Sanremo, Italy. The camp was organised by the OeSV (Austrian Sailing association) for the national elite junior athletes. My colleague and I provided athletic training sessions and sport scientific input for testing and training measures. For the rest of the time, I managed to work on a paper sitting on the sunny balcony of the hotel with view over the sea. Great working conditions and a pleasure to get in touch with this amazing sport.

Bigger pictures on:


Introduction: EU-project "AMID"

Tuesday, 01. August 2017


AMID is a EU project submitted by Prof. Dr. H. Wagner and myself, also leaders of the project. It was recently accepted for funding and will begin in January 2018. Here is a brief introduction what is about:


Migration across borders in the European Union is a requirement in many elite sports and a crucial challenge for Dual Careers athletes. As well known, policies vary across Europe and the existing support structures are not capable to overcome exchange obstacles. The insufficient support for migrating athletes is a major risk of decreased performances or drop outs in education and sports.

The objectives of the AMID project are a) to raise awareness and knowledge of the phenomenon of Dual Career and athlete migration including the current situation and challenges in the EU, b) to build a network and develop applicable support structures for migrating athletes within the EU including implementation and evaluation of best practices, and c) to provide practical tools to stakeholders and feed good practices into governance.

The partnership of AMID project consists of the European Athlete as Student network (EAS) and complementary academic as well as non-academic organisations (federations, clubs, and Olympic organisations) in Austria, Germany, Finland, Slovenia, and Italy. This network a) collects and exchanges good practices across Europe, b) identifies the opportunities to improve practices and raise governance standards. These practices will be implemented (intervention phase) and systematically tested in the participating organisations including migrating athletes from multiple countries. The evaluation of exchange opportunities and best practices will provide guidelines for key stakeholders to enhance Dual Career and athlete migration across Europe.

AMID aims to expand the network, exchange the identified best practices across European policies, and involve national authorities in all participating organisations. Thus, the project will contribute to the standardisation of European education and sport measures beyond the project’s time frame and outside of the participating organisations.

EU-project "AMID" accepted for funding

Monday, 24. July 2017


The project named "Athletic migration: Dual Career and qualification in sports (AMID)" was successfully accepted for funding by the European Commission. This collaberative partnership among 5 universities plus 6 federations from Austria, Germany, Italy, Finland, Slovenia plus the European Athlete as Student network (EAS) is under the lead of University of Salzburg, namely Prof. Herbert Wagner and myself. It starts in January 2018 and will address international migration of student-athletes in the EU.

Further news until then will be shared on Twitter and eventually, as the project starts and progresses, propber internet appearence will be installed.

Doctoral Seminar in Vent, Öztal, combined with Cold Training

Monday, 03. July 2017


During a succesful doctoral seminar with interdisciplinary exchange and discussions, we enjoyed the wonderful nature in the middle of the Austrian Alp. I used our free afternoon for a hike and made it to some fields of snow, perfect for having a small bath. Not having enough, a quick stop in a mountain river on the way back was a great addition to the cold training for this day.

Dr. Philip X. Fuchs, PhD      No 88, Sec 4, Tingzhou Rd, Wenshan Dist, 116 Taipei, Taiwan     +43 (0)680 2459 225